Essay about Biology: DNA Forensics
1790 Words8 Pages
DNA forensics is a division of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material in criminal investigation to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including criminal and civil cases. Through DNA testing, law enforcement officers are able to identify human remains or the individual responsible for a crime. DNA testing is a highly advanced scientific process that involves replicating the human DNA sequence to create a genetic map of an individual. Because of its reliability, DNA testing has become a significant factor in criminal cases. However, it has also been identified as having the potential to violate privacy and constitutional rights. The DNA identification process consists of five stages. These five stages…show more content…
Recently, DNA testing has been employed to create a genetic database of endangered animal species. Using this information, scientists have even cloned animals.
When life arose on Earth about 4 billion years ago, the first types of cells to evolve were prokaryotic cells. For approximately 2 billion years, prokaryotic-type cells were the only form of life on Earth. The oldest known sedimentary rocks found in Greenland are about 3.8 billion years old. The oldest known fossils are prokaryotic cells, 3.5 billion years in age, found in Western Australia and South Africa. The nature of these fossils, and the chemical composition of the rocks in which they are found, indicates that these first cells made use of simple chemical reactions to produce energy for their metabolism and growth. Eukaryotic cells evolved into being between 1.5 and 2 billion years ago. Eukaryotic cells appear to have arisen from prokaryotic cells, specifically out of the archaea. Indeed, there are many similarities in molecular biology of contemporary archaea and eukaryotes. However, the origin of the eukaryotic organelles, specifically chloroplasts and mitochondria, is explained by evolutionary associations between primitive nucleated cells and certain respiratory and photosynthetic bacteria, which led to the development of these organelles and the associated explosion of eukaryotic diversity. Today Prokaryotes
Dna And Crime Essay
1288 Words6 Pages
DNA and Crime
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - the fingerprint of life also know as DNA was first mapped out in the early 1950’s by British biophysicist, Francis Harry
Compton Crick and American biochemist James Dewey Watson. They determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, the substance that passes on the genetic characteristics from one generation to the next. DNA is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell.
"Every family line has it’s own unique pattern of restriction-enzyme DNA fragments. This variation in patterns of DNA fragments found in human genetic lineages is called ‘restriction-fragment length polymorphism’(RFLP)." (Louis
Levine, ?) Because each person, except for identical…show more content…
The semen matched Kotler’s blood and the chances of the semen being somebody else’s is one to 7.5 million. Also, dog hairs on the victims clothing matched hairs from Kotler’s German shepherd. Kotler, 37, is free on $25000 bail and could get up to 50 years in jail if convicted of rape and kidnapping.
Anamosa, Iowa: 22 year old Cathy Jo Bohlken was sexually assaulted and murdered. Genetic evidence from fluid taken from her body points to an 18 year old named Travis Jamieson. Bohlkan’s body was found DEC 26, 1993 on the floor of her duplex with a bag over her head and her hands wrapped with duct tape.
Autopsy shows she died of multiple stab wounds. The search of a pick-up truck registered to Jamieson’s parents revealed a utility knife and a “red-brown stain” on the steering wheel. (http://www.wcinet.com/th/news/th0208/stories/1355.htm)
Norman, Okl:Thomas Webb III was released after more than 13 years in prison for a 1982 rape. DNA testing was not available at the time so Gale Webb, Thomas’ wife, pushed authorities to use DNA genetic profiling on the 14 year old evidence. These DNA tests ruled him out as a suspect.
Santa Ana, Calif: Kevin Lee Green cried as the judge apologized for the mistake and freed him from prison after nearly 17 years. He was convicted of killing his unborn baby and nearly beating his wife to death.
He was released as authorities prepared to charge a