When governments want to recruit military manpower, they can use three methods: conscription (military draft), voluntary enlistments and a combination of both. All systems of the military manpower differ within the time and area. There are many countries, for example, the United Kingdom and the United States who rely on all-volunteer forces in comparison to the other countries that recruit substantial fractions of their military staff through conscription.
Nevertheless, Keller, Poutvaara and Wagener in their survey “Military Draft and Economic Growth in OECD Countries”, report that within the time a number of nations have changed their recruitment systems.
Although from time to time there happen the reestablishment proposals of a military draft surface even in traditionally non-drafting countries, it should be said that the military recruitment tend to the professional armed forces. That is why, nowadays, many countries, such as Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, France, Spain, Italy, the Czech Republic, Romania and Hungary have abolished or are under the process of phasing out conscription. (Keller, Poutvaara and Wagener, 2006).
Besides, it is well-known that in the United States there has been an intensive topic concerning the military draft and conscription since the Civil War. As a result of the implications of the mandatory military service, now we come across two sides, the first one is for the mandatory draft while the opponent is opposite the draft institution, claiming that the system of conscription features a lot of fundamental flaws. In addition, Marshall Moore in his article reports that there are a number of the draft opponents (in particular, the senior fellow of the Future of Freedom Foundation, Sheldon Richman,) who claim that the basic conscription concept is totally against the US ideas of liberty and freedom. Mr. Richman wonders how a citizen can be free if he or she is considered to be a subject to government-mandated employment in the armed forces. Richman’s article, “The Draft is Un-American,” compare the draft to “kidnapping,” adding that to defend their homes the Americans would volunteer to pick up arms even without a draft. But the people are not obliged to be subjected to the government’s choosing wars.
Meanwhile other draft detractors are sure that the most effective foundation for an armed force can not include a military featuring conscripted against their will. In addition, they are convinced that an all-volunteer military that is currently used by the United States is far more effective, better trained as well as organized in comparison to a conscripted one. An associate professor of law and economics at Clemson University, Donald J. Bordeaux illustrates this opinion in his article “A Life-Saving Lesson from Operation Desert Storm”. Besides, he is convinced that while comparing the military success of the US in Iraq in the earlier 1990s with the Vietnam struggles, we can see that the first was surely a result of an all-volunteer military effectiveness.
In addition, according to professor, the cost of war and military manpower is cheaper with the soldiers conscripted into the military make the cost of war and military manpower cheaper.
The opponents claim that being forced to join but not to be enticed to volunteer; the military will pay the soldiers less. As a result, the military’s manpower will be bolstered on the cheap; besides, it will be far easier and not so costly to go to war. It the “Capitalism Magazine,” entitled “The Economics of the Military Draft,” we can see that the author associates this with the fighter jets purchase at $5 million per piece but not $15. . (Moore, 2010).
Furthermore, Leslie Schwab says that the financial resources are not enough, so the taxpayers will suffer. People would pay more taxes, or maybe there would be the federally funded programs, reducing the Medicare and social security along with education, and health care. It is interesting to notice that the author also predicts that the draft would deprive the US of a number of future teachers, sportsmen, lawyers, and physicians, featuring the professionals already in need within US.
In addition, the US government should not forget the concern of morale. As now, according to the US current volunteer system, every man or woman enlisting makes his or her decision by the own free will. He is also sure that the military draft would end up by losing children during the military service and as a result, people would place the lives of their children in the hands of the government. (Schwab, 2007)
According to Poutvaara, the income levels are depressed by the military draft as during the military service people only work while other youth also use their time for education. As a result, young people after receiving the higher education increase the productivity of their labor and after that there is a wage increase.
As for me, I think that military draft is the episode of the past and it must remain such. Nobody can be sure that the government would not take you to the war, even when we are living in the piece. The war, for example, in Iraq does not have the direct line with the American nation, so why the Americans should die for it? Besides, I am sure that of all economies, the military draft is the worst because it is the rights’ abrogation.
In addition, the draft economy negates the people’s right to life, establishing the basic principle- It is a man who belongs to the state but not the state that belongs to the man. Who would like to live in such a state?
Besides, I would like to consider the financial aspect of the draft army.
It is considered that according to a draft system, a draftee receive about $15,000 per year while the volunteer soldier may gain about $25,000. That is why, at first glance, we may think that the draft is less expensive to the government. Nevertheless, I think that it is not so easy, because, on the other hand, there are a number of drafted soldiers receiving $35,000 a year and besides, this number increases. So, would it always be better to maintain a drafted army or to recruit the volunteers who would like his job and would become more professional every year?
October 20, 2014 |Free Essay Sample Papers|Tags: Military Draft
Essay on Military Draft
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According to the U.S. Department of Defense, the United States military now maintains a force of around 1.4 million active duty personnel. In times of relative peace, this is sufficient to protect U.S. interests at home and abroad. But when the United States engages in a larger scale operation, the military may need to call up reserve forces. In a major conflict, the United States may even institute the draft, drawing soldiers from the general civilian population.
The idea of a military draft, also called conscription, has been around in one form or another since ancient times. In its relatively short history, the United States has implemented a number of different conscription systems to fill its military ranks in…show more content…
A few select groups of men are also excused automatically. These groups include: men who are actively serving in the military, men who are attending a military service academy or select university military officer procurement program, foreign citizens in the United States on valid student, visitor or diplomatic visas, certain foreign agricultural workers, men who are confined to a hospital or psychiatric institution, handicapped men who cannot function in public, and inmates.
All other men between 18 and 25 are legally required to register with the SSS within 30 days of reaching eligibility. Men can register via mail, over the Internet, at the post office or with a high school Selective Service Registrar. The SSS keeps the names and addresses of all registered men on file so they can be called up easily if the draft is reinstated. Most U.S. citizens become eligible on their 18th birthday; others become eligible the day they are no longer exempt (the day they drop out of a military academy, for example). Eligible aliens are required to register within 30 days of entering the country.
The government may prosecute a potential draftee who does not register with the SSS. If convicted, the man would face up to five years in jail and a fine of up to $250,000. Today, the government is unlikely to take such extreme action. Instead, it encourages registration by withholding government benefits from potential draftees in violation. This includes federal financial aid for