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Typhoid Fever Essay examples

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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is an intestinal illness, which can result in great suffering and even death. At first it was commonly confused with other fever causing illnesses until 1869 when William Jenner performed a careful analysis and found differences in the different types of typhus fevers. In this paper, I will discuss the bacteria that causes typhoid fever, discuss the signs, symptoms, method of transmission, past and current epidemics, and whether or not there has been a decrease in outbreaks in the past few years.

Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, a member of the genus Salmonella, which is included in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Salmonella typhi cells are aerobic, gram negative rods that…show more content…

If the immune system is unable to stop the infection, the bacterium will multiply and then spread to the bloodstream, after which the first signs of disease are observed in the form of fever. The bacterium penetrates further into the bone marrow, liver, and bile ducts, from which bacteria are excreted into the bowel movements. (Easmon 2003)

The second phase of the disease involves the bacteria entering the immune tissue of the small intestine. This causes vomiting and diarrhea, often described as "pea soup." If left untreated, the bacteria can create a hole in the small intestine, causing intestinal matter to flood the abdominal area. If one is lucky enough to survive this illness without treatment, he or she can still be a carrier of the germs long after the symptoms have disappeared.

The bacteria have an ability to fight the normal bodily process of eliminating germs. Recently, the mechanism used by the bacteria to avoid detection has been identified. The typhoid bacteria use a protein to kill macrophages, which are our first defense against infection. Without these macrophages, infection goes unnoticed into the body. (sciencedaily.com) Killing these macrophages is the key to survival for the typhoid bacteria. Researchers identified in mouse cells a protein kinase called PKR that causes the death of this macrophage, or large white blood cells that act as the body's first defense against

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Description
Salmonella is an intestinal infection caused by Salmonella enterica bacteria. You can become infected by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella or by touching infected pets. In rarer cases, Salmonella infection can also be carried in medical products that were derived from contaminated animals. Before a Salmonella infection can begin, somewhere between 100,000 and 100,000,000 Salmonella enterica bacteria must actually be swallowed. Salmonella bacteria invade the intestinal wall, where they trigger inflammation. They also produce irritating intestinal poisons. In some rare cases, Salmonella bacteria may enter the bloodstream and settle in tissues and organs far away from the intestines. This spread of Salmonella infection is most common in infants, in the elderly, and in patients whose immune defenses are weakened.
Symptoms
After someone has eaten food contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, it usually takes 8 to 48 hours for symptoms to begin. Symptoms of Salmonella include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and muscle aches.
Prevention
You can prevent Salmonella by thoroughly cooking all meats, ground beef, poultry and eggs, and by promptly refrigerating all leftovers. Whenever silverware has touched raw meat, wash these items thoroughly with soap and water. Also, avoid eating eggs that are raw or partially cooked. Frequent hand washing is particularly important, especially after using the rest room.
Treatment
Doctors do not usually prescribe antibiotics, since patients typically recover on their own in a few days. Since many strains of Salmonella are resistant to one or more antibiotics, a patient may be treated initially with one antibiotic, then switched to a second antibiotic if it doesn"t work.
Prognosis
Most patients with Salmonella recover within 5 to 10 days; however, they may continue to pass Salmonella bacteria in their stool for up to 2 months.


Conclusion
Salmonella can be a fatal disease, but in most cases it is lived through. The main two things to do to prevent getting Salmonella is to cook all food thoroughly before eating, and to wash your hands frequently.

Bibliography

"Salmonella". Encarta. 1994

www.discoveryhealth.com. "Salmonella Infections".

"Salmonella" The Masshal caventish Encyclopedia of Health. 1989

www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/Glad/1798. "Salmonella".

 

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